With higher prices of raw materials and more severe requirements for safety and environmental issues, most process industries face a growing demand to measure with higher precision. To be able to do that, good measuring instruments and skills in design, dimensioning, installatation and maintenance is are required. Learn how to be a metrologist!
This is a practical handbook, assisting and guiding everyone who wants to design a proper process with as small measuring errors as possible. In the focus are all processes built around pipes, such as petroleum refineries, chemical industries, water supply, power plants, food- and drugs producers, mining, pulp and paper plants and similar. The target group includes students, automation engineers, service technicians, QA-personnel and process designers. The level is rather basic aiming at students in the age of 18-20 and/or for people who have worked in the field for some years and need to refresh their studies.
1. Application examples
The idea with this book is to build most of the content around a number of examples. These examples are collected from “the real world” and are typical problems a process engineer will face when designing or improving measurement and control circuits. Among these examples you will find heat treatment, batching, level control, steam measurement and more.
2. Flow meters
A number of commonly available flow meters are discussed. What principle to select, what to think about during sizing and installation, what advantage and disadvantage each meter type has. A short introduction includes very basic info on fundamentals.
3. Pressure sensors
The text starts with short information on sensors and their working principles. A large part of this is about differences between absolute, gauge and differential pressure and how to install these when measuring in static systems (such as tanks) and dynamic systems (such as pipes).
4. Temperature sensors
Resistance type sensors will dominate this chapter. How accurate are they, how will they measure in a pipeline and how well is the sensor temperature representing the average fluid. Also some basic info on thermocouples and pyrometers (heat cameras) is included.
5. Level meters
A tank level gauge can be designed in many different ways. Differences between top-mounted (such as radar) and bottom mounted devices (such as pressure transmitters) will be discussed. A part of this chapter will also introduce the importance of the tank and its shape.
6. Analytical instruments
pH, conductivity are briefly described as representatives from the “field of chemical measurements”. Similarities and differences on how instruments works and are treated in a process and in a laboratory is discussed.
7. Electrical signals
This chapter is about milliamps, volts, cable resistance and data communication. Protocols as HART and Field Bus Foundation, as well as common interfaces like PACT ware is included.
8. Valves, pumps and pipes
Important basic data that the measurement technician might need to know is covered in this chapter. What do DN and PN stand for? What is the difference between a ball- and a gate valve? What type of connector is normally used on a fire-truck?
9. Process safety
Process safety is a growing part of the design work for measurement and control systems. An introduction of IEC61508 /61511 and the SIL concept is included. Also other safety aspects like explosion safety, electrical safety and electromagnetic compatibility will be discussed.
10. Calibration and traceability
An instrument without a traceable calibration no is not really useable. This is the main message in this chapter. Also it includes practical information on how, when and where to do these calibrations.
11. Measurement uncertainty
Error, accuracy, repeatability, uncertainty. In this chapter we try to explain words and concepts. Also basic information on how to calculate measurement uncertainty according to ISO guide 98/99 (GUM) is included (with an example).
12. Foundations of metrology
This chapter covers a brief history of measurements, from Farao’s cubit and the waterbook of Rome to the metric.
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